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托福基础语法知识讲解

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语法是托福考试的基本内容,小编整理了一些语法知识,让我们一起来看看吧。下面小编就和大家分享,来欣赏一下吧。

托福基础语法知识讲解:被动时态

语法知识也是托福备考的基本内容,语法知识贯穿于听说读写各个考试科目中。今天我们重点来讲解的是“被动时态”,下面就跟随新东方在线托福网一起来看看具体的内容吧!

先说说被动语态的结构,其基本结构为:be+动词的过去分词。其与主动语态在形式上的特征是选择使用哪一种语态的必备常识,也是解题的一种手段。

被动语态区别于主动语态的是谓语动词必须是及物动词且之后绝大多数不能够再接宾语,只有极少数可以接双宾语的动词,像consider, give, call, name等就可以,比如像:She was considered a genius in painting.

小编提醒:在托福考试的改错题中,如果在被动句里面,动词(除了上面提到的接双宾语的动词)的被动式后面出现宾语,那么在这里绝对是有错误的,可将其改为主动句,但是同样的,在主动句里面,如果及物动词后面没有宾语,此处肯定也是错误的,可以将其改为被动句。

其实大家可以将by视为被动语态的标志词,在by之后的名词短语是句子中动作的施动者,因此在题目中如果见到by+名词的结构的时候,最优先考虑的就是被动式,比如像:The book was written by Mark Twain.

小编提醒:在by的后面如果接的是动名词,那么其表示为方式、手段就不能将其视为被动式的标志了,并且此时的谓语应该用主动式,如:He passed the exam by cheating.而对于know来讲,一般都是用be known to,而不用be know by。有点迷糊?没事,我们照例来例题解析:

例:The seating of musicians in an orchestra is arranged --- to produce The desired blend of contributor from The various himself to sections.

(A) the conductor of

(B) from the conductor

(C) the conductor and

(D) by the conductor

解析:在题目中,如果不要空白处的话,句子也是很完整的,我们可以清楚的看到空格后的不定式短语表目的,那么可能填入的是arrange的施动者,自然此处应该用by来引导,A选项中of不能接不定式,C选项不能在被动式后面接宾语,所以选D。

大家都知道被动语态由助动词be加上过去分词构成,因此它也会有不同的时态,其时态主要通过助动词be来表现,在其中,对过去进行时的表示方法大家要留意啊。比如像:The potatoes are being peeled in The machine.当然还有其他的时态,像:

The table has just been cleaned.(现在完成时)

His passport had been changed without His notice.(过去完成时)

The press conference will be held in three weeks.(一般将来时)

这个我们方便大家理解,就直接上例题解析:

例:Experiment in the photography of moving objects --in both the United States and Europe well before 1900.

(A) have had been conducting

(B) were conducting

(C) had been conducted

(D) being conducted

解析:在这个句子中缺少谓语,conduct是及物动词,因此后面如果没有宾语的话,基于此,A和B首先接被排除了,D的分词是不能单独作谓语的,所以选C。

托福语法实例讲解:不定代词

一、比较both 和All

Both,either,neither都是在谈到两个人或者东西的时候用到

Both of them are right. (他们两个人都对)

You can take either book.(两本书你可以任意挑一本)

Neither of them is going to get haircut. (他们俩谁也不愿意理发)

All of the books are worth to read. (三本书以上)

None of them is going to get haircut. (them指三个人以上)

I like any of them. (them指三个人以上)

二、None 和no

None和no都用于否定的意思。但是None是“没有一个人或者没有一个东西”,在句子中可以用作主语、宾语、同位语等。而No是“没有”的意思,只能够当作形容词用,不能够作代词用。

None of them knew how to do it. (不能够说no of them)

No women are allowed to come in.

三、another,the other,others,the others

1.在涉及到两个人或者东西的时候,任意取一个用one,另外那个用the other(表示特指)

I have two computers; one is IBM,the other is Dell.

2.涉及到三个以上时,任意取一个用one,泛指另外一个用another

Three people went to the meeting. One was a software programmer,another was a network expert, and the third was a college student.

3.涉及到三个以上时,任意取一个用one,表示特指其他的那些用the others或者用

the other+名词

Two of them go to Canada,the others go to America.

(他们中两个人去了加拿大,其他人去了美国)

Two of the students go to Canada,the other students go to America

托福词汇语法讲解

第一讲 词类  一、 冠词  【概念】  冠词是一种虚词,用在名词或者名词性短语的前面,表示名词是特指还是泛指。  冠词可以分为定冠词(the)和不定冠词(a / an)。  【你来练习】 an 用在元音音素前  ____ university ____ upward trend ______ European  ____ engineer _____ hot dog ______ honour  (一) 不定冠词(a / an)的用法  1. 第一次提及的人或物,泛指某人或某物之前  1) Once a child goes to school, they are entering a wider community where teachers and peers will have just as much influence as their parents do at home.  2) [一个最近的调查] conducted by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences has found that one third of the white collar workers suffer from insomnia and depression.  2. 表示一类人或物 A knife is a tool for cutting with.  A dog is a common animal.  3. 不定冠词用在事物的“单位”前,如时间、价格等意义的名词前,表示“每一”。  1).People are suggested to do exercises . [至少一周两次]  2).Health experts recommend that people should drink . [一天八杯水]  4. 不定冠词用于固定词组中,如 quite a little, a large(good,great) amount /sum/deal of,  quite a few, a great(good,great) number of, a good many (of), a host of,  a lot of/ lots of/ plenty of a large quantity of /a series of/ a good supply of  1).Excessive intake of high fat, sugar and calories leads to a host of health problems.  2).Obesity is no longer a personal health problem, but a thorny issue inducing a series of social problems.  5. 用于序数词前,表示“又一,再一” Can you give me a second chance?  6. 抽象名词具体化,被具体化的名词要加不定冠词  a surprise a success a pleasure  7. 用于固定搭配中 once a week ; a series of; a piece of ;a wide range of  (二) 定冠词(the)的用法  1. 定冠词特指,上文中已经提到过的人或者事物,或双方明确所指的人或物前。  1) There are many factors that contribute to child and adolescent obesity. The factors may include age, sex, genes, psychological makeup and environment.  2) In network age, the development of the library faces new challenges.  2. 定冠词与可数名词单数连用,表示一类人或者物。  1) [电脑] and video games contribute to children’s inactive lifestyles.  2) [吸烟者] causes damage to others through second-hand smoking.  3. 定冠词用于表示世界上独一无二的事物或者自然现象名词前  the earth, the sun, the moon, the world, the South Pole, the universe, the Bible  4. 定冠词用在序数词、形容词最高级和表示方位的名词前。  5. 用在乐器名称前,特别是西洋乐器  但中华民族乐器和音乐名词前不用冠词  6. 用在姓氏复数形式前,表示“全家人”或“夫妻俩”  7.用在年代,朝代,时代名词前  8. 用于江河,海洋,湖泊,海峡,山脉,群岛。  9. 用在习语中all the same;all the time;at the moment;at the same time ;by the way  【你来翻译】  3) 最有效的方式  4) 有同样经验的人  5) 西游记  6) 他是我最不想见的人。  (三) 零冠词用法概述  1.表示泛指的复数名词前,表示一类人或事物  Employees get job satisfaction in a number of ways.  2.在季节、节日、星期、月份及三餐等名词前  [吃早饭] ___________is a good way to start the day and may be important in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.  3. 指职位、头衔的词  4. 在表示棋类或球类的名词前  第二讲 句子结构  Chapter Two —— Sentence Structure  1.主语:主语是一个句子的主体,一般位于句首,表示句子说的是什么人或者什么事情。一般由名词,代词,不定式,动名词或从句充当。  The girl is pretty.  He is a volunteer.  To see is to believe  Reading is useful.  What is more unbelievable is the fact that he didn’t die.  2.谓语:说明主语做什么,是什么或者怎么样,由简单动词或者动词短语构成.谓语在人称和数的方面必须要和主语一致。  They are teachers.  She looks well.  He can speak English.  He studies hard.  He laughed at his classmates.  3.宾语: 是动作,行为的对象,由名词,代词,短语,不定式,动名词,从句充当.它和及物动词一起说明主语做了什么,在谓语之后。  She plays the piano.  He often helps me.  I like watching TV.  She likes to go to shop this afternoon.  I think that he is a good guy.  注:直接宾语和间接宾语:英语中,一些及物动词如:give, pass, show, send, bring, tell, teach, buy, lend等,可以带两个宾语。一个指人,叫间接宾语;一个指物,叫直接宾语。

Eg. He gives him the book  (间宾) (直宾)  4. 表语:说明主语是什么,或者怎么样,由名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,不定式,动名词,短语,或者从句充当.表语位于系动词后面.  I am a teacher.  She is happy.  Everybody is here.  They are at home now.  My job is to teach English.  Seeing is believing.  This is what I want  5. 定语:是用来说明人或事物的品质或特征。修饰名词或代词。形容词,代词,数词,名词,介词短语,不定式,动名词,分词,从句都可以充当定语.  The black bike is mine. What’s your name?  I have five books. The boy in the room is Jack.  They made paper flowers. I have something to do.  A sleeping boy. A broken vase.  The girl who is talking is my sister.  注:英语的定语可以前置,也可以后置。独立的单词作定语时,习惯上放在被修饰的词之前作前置定语;短语或句子(定语从句)作定语时,应放在被修饰的词后面,作后置定语  6. 状语:状语用来修饰动词,形容词或副词.它表示行为发生的时间,地点,目的,方式,程度等.一般由副词,介词短语,不定式或相当于副词的词或短语充当,也可由从句来充当.  I have a dream today.(时间状语)  He did it carefully. (方式状语)  I was born on June 9th 1982 in Guangxi.(地点状语)  7. 宾语补足语:是补充说明宾语的身份,状态,特性或所做的动作的一种句子成分。一般由名词,形容词,不定式,介词短语和分词构成。  His parents named him Jim.  We found the book very interesting.  .Lucy asked him to turn down the radio.  I’ll have my hair cut tomorrow.  句子的结构  按句子的结构可分三种:  1)简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)。  e.g. He often reads English in the morning.  Tom and Mike are American boys.  She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers.  2) 并列句:由并列连词(and, but, for, or, so)或分号(;)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。  e.g. You help him and he helps you.  The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 前途是光明的,道路是曲折的。  3)复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句包含:名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)、定语从句和状语从句等。  e.g. The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.  (其中简单句其中二)  其中在简单句中英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。  1. S+V→主语+谓语(不及物动词)(+状语)  Class begins.  Jim runs in the park.  及物动词后可直接加宾语:buy, catch, invent, found, like,  注:及物和不及物动词的区别 raise, find, forget  不及物动词后面不可直接接宾语,一般要加介词后再接宾语:  go, work, listen, look, come  eg.Managers often behave very differently outside the office and in it, even to the same person.  由于世界的工业化和人口的增长,水污染问题加剧了。/ is ge  2. S+V+O→主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语  He enjoys reading.  eg.Children’s extensive exposure to television violence causes greater aggressiveness.  Solving these problems cannot depend on the simple rise in the price of petrol.  3. S+V+IO+DO→主语+谓语(及物动词)+间接宾语+直接宾语  I bought John a birthday present.  Please tell me your telephone number.  eg. 1.广告给我们提供很多有用的信息。  Advertisements supply us much useful information  2.家长应该保证孩子接受教育的机会。[guarantee]  Parents should guarantee their children the access to f  4 .S+V+P→主语+系动词+表语(+状语)  He became a scientist.  They are honest.  eg. 目前,对于许多国家的年轻人来说,高中毕业后从学习中休息一下是非常普遍的。[have a break from]  It is quite common these days for young people in many countries to have a break from studying after  eg.出现在商业广告中的信息有时候是误导性和欺骗性的。  The information that appears in the commercial sometimes are che  5. S+V+O+C (主+谓+宾+宾补)  The war made him a soldier.  New methods make the job easy.  1.School bullying makes students afraid of going to school.  2.Many people find their rewards unfair, especially when comparing these super salaries with those of top surgeons or research scientists,  【练习】  1) 学会与别人合作是一个人职业中的关键因素  2) 父母们总是期望他们的孩子出人头地。  3) 媒体中的暴力可能会给孩子呈现出不好的范例。  旅游者有机会去充分体验完全不同的文化。

托福词汇语法讲解:时态问题

★ 写作中,常用时态有四种:一般现在时,现在进行时,现在完成时,一般将来时  ★ 口语中,注意时态的正确使用,特别是过去时  一、 写作中常用时态  1. 一般现在时:注意第三人称单数  【你来翻译】  1) 做兼职工作对一个人的将来的事业有深远的影响。[exert profound impacts on]  Taking part-time jobs exerts profound impacts on one’s future career.  2) 国际旅游业促进经济发展。  International tourism promotes the economic development.  3) 电子书籍的发展将带来书籍业的重大变化。  The development of e-books will bring major changes in the book industry.  2. 现在进行时:表示逐渐的过程  【常用句型】  1) X。X。X is developing / increasing / advancing rapidly/dramatically/at an amazing rate.  2) X。X。X is becoming increasingly popular / prevalent in the contemporary world.  3. 现在完成时: 常用来表示变化发展的结果。  【时间搭配】 In recent years / In the past decades…  1) 最近几十年期间,科技极大的改变了人们的生活。  In recent years, technology has reshaped people’s life.  2) 最近几年,现代的科技已经被广泛的应用于教育中,这在一定程度上丰富了传统的教学方法。  In recent years, modern technology has been widely applied to education in schools, which, to meth.  3) Over the last half century the pace of change in the life of human beings has increased beyond our wildest expectations. This has been driven by technological and scientific breakthroughs that are changing the whole way we view the world on an almost daily basis.  4. 一般将来时:常用来表示对将来一种趋势的预测,  【常用句式】 will do (be expected / predicted to do (表示一种预测) )  托福阅读备考提升语法能力2大重点要点讲解

托福阅读提升语法能力要点分析

1.熟悉语法规则

对于托福阅读,常见的语法现象有定语从句,主宾表同四个名词性从句,以及非谓语动词。对于多数的学生而言,单个的语法现象不足以成为阅读的障碍,真正的障碍来自于文章句子里面所体现的多个语法现象,也就是我们平时所说的长难句。经常做错题分析的同学也明白,自己错题的原因并非没有找到相关的信息,而是定位到有效信息后,没有看懂句子的意思,导致错题。所以备考阶段需要有针对性,要加强长难句分析的训练,由易到难,熟练掌握语法规则。

2.精读文章,分析段落结构,划分句子成分,并翻译文章大意

句子是语法的载体,在做完题目之后必须要精读文章,把每段的段落层次划分清楚,把比较难懂的句子单独拿出来划出主干部分,并翻译出大意。在这一环节,翻译是必要的,翻译其实就是语言的输出,如果输出的信息是正确的,那么我们的理解就是正确的,同时还有利于老师对于学生语法知识盲点的准确判断,改进教学。

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